Tensile test is performed to determine properties of a material against axial positive loads. This type of load tries to enlarge the test specimen.
The objectives of tensile test are: to determine properties of a material or to determine the behavior of a component or system against an external axial positive load.
Material properties determination: For example standard ISO 6892-1 for tensile test over metallic materials at ambient temperature.
The standard defines how tensile test has to be performed and the elements involved to assure obtaining useful information about the material itself. These results have to be independent of test sample geometry and of the testing machine.
The values to be obtained are, among others: elastic limit, modulus of elasticity (Young’s modulus), upper yield strength, lower yield strength, tensile strength, proof strength, elongation at fracture, elongation at maximum force, etc.
These values will be used to do calculations for designing proper products, components and systems which will perform correctly on their usual working conditions.
Behavior of a component or system: in this case, the objective is to determine the working limits of the element being tested and how its performance when an external load is applied.
These values will be used for improving designs and calculations, ensuring that theoretical and real behavior are among the safety limits.
For a precise and repetitive tensile test execution, a reliable testing machine is needed, so the measurements are accurate enough and the control can perform according what’s demanded in the standard.
It is also useful to use a testing software to configure tests, automatically calculate values, represent tests on graphs and manage resulting data easily.
There is a wide range of international standards for tensile test, depending on the type of material, its manufacturing process, application and testing conditions.
- UNE-EN ISO 6892-1: Metallic materials — Tensile testing — Part 1: Method of test at room temperature.
- ASTM E8 / E8M: Standard Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Material.
- ASTM E21: Standard Test Methods for Elevated Temperature Tension Tests of Metallic Materials.
- UNE-ISO 5893: Rubber and plastics test equipment — Tensile, flexural and compression types (constant rate of traverse) — Specification.
- EN 2561: Aerospace series – Carbon fibre reinforced plastics – Unidirectional laminates – Tensile test parallel to the fibre direction.
- ASTM D882: Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Thin Plastic Sheeting.
Other material testing
- UNE-EN ISO 12996: Mechanical joining — Destructive testing of joints — Specimen dimensions and test procedure for tensile shear testing of single joints.